To explain the relationship among capital structure, cost of capital and value of the firm various theories have been propounded by different authors.
All Modules Relationship Among Prevalence, Incidence Rate, and Average Duration of Disease Prevalence is the proportion of a population that has a condition at a specific time, but the prevalence will be influenced by both the rate at which new cases are occurring and the average duration of the disease.
Incidence reflects the rate at which new cases of disease are being added to the population and becoming prevalent cases.
Average duration of disease is also important, because the only way you can stop being a prevalent case is to be cured or to move out of the population or die.
For example, about a decade ago the average duration of lung cancer was about six months. Therapy was ineffective and almost all lung cancer cases died. From the time of diagnosis, the average survival was only about six months. So, the prevalence of lung cancer was fairly low.
In contrast, diabetes has a long average duration, since it can't be cured, but it can be controlled with medications, so the average duration of diabetes is long, and the prevalence is fairly high. If the population is initially in a "steady state," meaning that prevalence is fairly constant and incidence and outflow [cure and death] are about equalthen the relationship among these three parameters can be described mathematically as: Duration is the average time that people have the disease from diagnosis until they are either cured or die.
If the frequency of disease is rare i. Similarly, if the incidence remained constant, then developing a cure would reduce the average duration of disease, and this would also reduce the prevalence of disease.
In the late s anti-retroviral therapy was introduced and greatly improved the survival of people with HIV. However, they weren't cured of their disease, meaning that the average duration of disease increased.
As a result, the prevalence of HIV increased during this period.
The relationship can be visualized by thinking of inflow and outflow from a reservoir. The fullness of the reservoir can be thought of as analogous to prevalence.
Raindrops might represent incidence or the rate at which new cases of a disease are being added to the population, thus becoming prevalent cases. Water also flows out of the reservoir, analogous to removal of prevalent cases by virtue of either dying or being cured of the disease.
Imagine that incidence rainfall and the rate of cure or death are initially equal; if so, the height of water in the reservoir will remain constant.
If outflow from the reservoir rates of cure or death among prevalent cases remains constant and rainfall incidence of new disease increases, then the height of water in the reservoir will rise.
Conversely, if incidence rainfall declines, then the water level will fall. If we start from steady state again, and the rate of rainfall remains constant, but the outflow rate of cure or rate of death increases, then the height of the water prevalence will fall.
Conversely, if incidence is held constant, but outflow falls e. Calculating Average Duration of Disease This relationship can also be used to calculate the average duration of disease under steady state circumstances.
Individuals with lung cancer survived an average of 6 months from the time of diagnosis to death. If the prevalence of a disease has been more or less constant for the past ten years i.
It would increase the prevalence. It would decrease the prevalence. It would have no effect on prevalence.
The effect cannot be predicted from the information given. It would decrease prevalence of the disease. It would have no effect on the prevalence of disease.
The effect on prevalence cannot be predicted from the information given.What is the relationship among the four levels of evaluation?
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Relationship Among Prevalence, Incidence Rate, and Average Duration of Disease Prevalence is the proportion of a population that has a condition at a specific time, but the prevalence will be influenced by both the rate at which new cases are occurring and the average duration of the disease.
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Chapter 2. Midterm 1. STUDY. PLAY. The damage to an ecosystem caused by a hurricane or flood can be referred to as. a disturbance. The relationship among atoms, elements, and compounds is most like the relationship among which of the following groupings. grains of . The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children ☆ Author links open overlay panel Wendy M.
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