Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism: This is based on the idea that there is no ultimate standard of good or evil, so every judgment about right and wrong is a product of society. Therefore, any opinion on morality or ethics is subject to the cultural perspective of each person.
Medlin distinguishes hypothetical and categorical egoism, " This is not really egoism but a version of closet utilitarianism that cites a utilitarian reason for emphasizing self-interested reasons in acting. Categorical egoism, on the other hand, contends that universal egoism is the correct moral theory.
Medlin maintains that categorical egoism is not rational because self-interest can not provide a rational foundation for human action. Pojman maintains that Medlin is an anti-realist or anti-objectivist about morals. He maintains that moral statements are not propositions about moral facts: Are all utterances propositions?
The main implication of such a position is that moral utterances are not propositions or statements, and, hence, are not capable of being true or false.
In his "Subjectivism," James Rachels clarifies that emotivism is a version of subjectivism which maintains that: Its purpose is entirely different.
And, second, moral language is used to express not report one's attitude. Simple subjectivism interpreted ethical sentences as statements of fact, of a special kind--namely, as reports of the speaker's attitude.
Here we disagree, but in a different sense [than would be the case where there is a difference in our beliefs]. It is not our beliefs that are in conflict, but our desires.
You and I may agree about all the facts surrounding the gun-control controversy, and yet still take different sides concerning what we want to see happen.
In the first kind of disagreement [a disagreement in beliefs], we believe different things, both of which cannot be true. In the second [a disagreement in attitudes], we want different things, both of which cannot happen. Stevenson calls this a disagreement in attitude, and contrasts it with a disagreement about attitudes.
Moral disagreements, says Stevenson, are disagreements in attitude. Simple subjectivism could not explain moral disagreement because, once it interpreted moral judgements as statements about attitudes, the disagreement vanished.
Medlin would not agree with Rachels, but he does contend that an emotivist may argue rationally against ethical egoism. According to him, there is a sort of inconsistency which does apply in the case of morality at least when it comes to categorical ethical egoism.
He notes that there is both a similarity and a difference between contradictory propositions and incompatible or inconsistent attitudes: In so far as their desires conflict, people don't know what to do.
And, therefore, no expression of incompatible desires can ever serve for an ultimate principle of human conduct.
Medlin, then, maintains 1 that our ultimate ethical principles are arbitrary; 2 that moral claims are, thus, merely avowals; 3 that ethical egoism, if it is a moral "theory," must be categorical and universal; and 4 that these demands engender inconsistency or incompatibility in our attitudes.
According to Medlin, "professional philosophers" now generally accept that " Here we must be a-rational; neither rational nor irrational, for here there is no room for reason even to go wrong.
There are some who contend that one can derive an ought from an is; 7 and many who allow that you can't, but contend that these principles are not "baldly asserted" or "arationally held.- Meta-Ethical Cultural Relativism The thesis of meta-ethical cultural relativism is the philosophical viewpoint that there are no absolute moral truths, only truths relative to .
Essay on Ethical Relativism and Cultural Relativism - In explaining Cultural Relativism, it is useful to compare and contrast it with Ethical Relativism.
Cultural Relativism is a theory about morality focused on the concept that matters of custom and ethics are not universal in nature but rather are culture specific.
moral truths, because of this I believe cultural relativism is a flawed universal principle, which is a contradiction to the idea of pluralism.
All Philosophy Essay Cultural Relativism. Uploaded by. Michael Smith. Putative sex differences essay. Uploaded by. - Meta-Ethical Cultural Relativism The thesis of meta-ethical cultural relativism is the philosophical viewpoint that there are no absolute moral truths, only truths relative to .
philosophy. Q: which of the following statements indicate a belief in some universal moral truths? a. terrorist activities that take innocent lives are morally indefensible. Ethical objectivism on the other hand contends that moral values are universal and not dependent on individuals.
This is the view that rightness or wrongness of an ethical act does not vary from one individual to another.