Summary Analysis In the city of Baltimore, there was a syphilis epidemic in the mids. For decades, a couple people got syphilis every year—but something happened in the 90s that caused hundreds of people to get the disease.
On the subway, a group of four young black men approached Goetz and asked him for five dollars. In response, Goetz revealed his gun and shot the four black men, killing three of them and paralyzing the fourth. In the aftermath of the shooting, Goetz became something of a hero: As with his earlier chapters, Gladwell begins with a specific example—here, the life of Bernhard Goetz—then doubles back to explain the relevant sociological principles, and finally returns to apply these principles to his original example.
Yet afterthe crime rate went down in New York at a surprising rate.
InGoetz went to trial in civil court. That Goetz could, at different points in the 80s and 90s, be celebrated as a hero and demonized as a racist murderer is an excellent, if disturbing, example of the importance of context, especially historical context.
Gladwell proposes that we can understand the decline in crime by citing the Power of Context: The third rule of social epidemics is environmental in nature: Active Themes One reason why the decline in New York City crime is such a mystery is that is happened so quickly.
At a time when crime in the U. They clamped down on minor crimes like graffiti, turnstile-jumping, and public urination. Within a The tipping point summary chpt 1 4 years, crime in New York City—including serious crimes like rape and murder—had plummeted.
In the 80s, Goetz had a reputation among his friends as a short-tempered, often explicitly racist man: Therefore, the Broken Window Hypothesis could be said to take a sympathetic view of crime and criminals: The same is true of environment: During the infamous Stanford Prison Experiment of the s, volunteers were divided into prisoners and guards in a mock-prison.
The experiment became so violent and sadistic that it had to be called off after only six days, though it was originally supposed to go on for two weeks.
It would be easy to conclude, as some have done, that the Stanford Prison Experiment proves that people are innately wicked. But in fact, Gladwell suggests, environment can influence people to behave in any number of different ways.
In this experiment, students were given a difficult test: The goal of the experiment was to measure how students cheat. The results of the experiment were surprising: There were almost no students who were honest all of the time, or who cheated all of the time—whether or not the students cheated depended on environmental factors.
Intuitively, one might think that honesty is a stable, innate character trait. But as this experiment implies, honesty is subject to environmental influences: Active Themes Humans have a bad habit of attributing human behavior to innate causes i.
In fact, environment plays an enormous role in human behavior. Active Themes There was an experiment conducted at Princeton University in which Princeton theological students were asked to make a brief presentation on a biblical parable.
The students were given some time to prepare their presentations, and then a lab assistant escorted them across the campus to a new building. During this walk, the assistant made sure to lead the students past a groaning, coughing man crawling on the ground in reality, just an actor. One might assume that almost all the theological students stopped to help the man, especially since the situation was based on one of the most famous biblical parables, the parable of the Good Samaritan.
When the assistant told the students they were pressed for time, the students almost never stopped to help the man; on the other hand, when the assistant mentioned that there was plenty of the time, the students were much more likely help the man. The Princeton theological seminary experiment is a particularly striking example of the role of environment on behavior because it concerns theological students—in other words, people that would seem to have a particularly stable, clear-cut personality-type honest, loyal, moral, etc.
As with the Kitty Genovese incident, it would be easy to conclude from the experiment that human beings are innately cold and callous. Active Themes Gladwell is not saying that personality and psychology are unimportant in determining behavior. In the real world, whether or not a person in fact does behave a certain way is subject to environmental stimuli.
The distinction between inclination and action is at the heart of the Power of Context, and the Broken Window Hypothesis. Even if criminal psychology cannot be cured, society can reduce crime by controlling the environments and spaces that often encourage crime.
Gladwell adds an important qualifier to his chapter: However, there are times when context can tip human behavior in a certain direction, regardless of personality.the tipping point summary chpt Research Paper The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference Literature Review of the Tipping Point American culture changes dramatically over time.
Summary In Chapter 4, the book goes in depth about the story of Bernhard Goetz and the overarching theme of "The Power of Contex." This theme includes concepts about the law of the few.
which is the power of persuasion . LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Tipping Point, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Arn, Jackson. "The Tipping Point Chapter One: The Three Rules of Epidemics." LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 29 Nov Web. 14 Sep Arn, Jackson.
"The Tipping Point. the tipping point summary chpt Essay Words | 13 Pages. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference Literature Review of the Tipping Point American culture changes dramatically over time. Malcolm Gladwell (), author of The Tipping Point, presents a theory of social epidemics.
Chapter Summary for Malcolm Gladwell's The Tipping Point, chapter 4 summary.
Find a summary of this and each chapter of The Tipping Point! The Tipping Point is explained how things spread from one person to another, whether it is ideas, products, fashion trends, increase in crime rates, sexually transmitted diseases/infections, and any other sudden unexplained changes or patterns.