Generator Basics An electric generator is a device or machine that is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. It is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, a scientific law that was discovered by British scientist Michael Faraday and American scientist Joseph Henry in The principle states that when an electric conductor, such as a copper wire, is moved through a magnetic field, electric current will flow through the conductor.
Post Carbon Institute26 September under a Creative Commons License Akropolis by Leo von Klenze Could declining world energy result in a turn toward authoritarianism by governments around the world?
As we will see, there is no simple answer that applies to all countries.
However, pursuing the question leads us on an illuminating journey through the labyrinth of relations between energy, economics, and politics. Department of Energy anticipate an increase in world energy supplies lasting at least until the end of this century.
However, these agencies essentially just match supply forecasts to anticipated demandwhich they extrapolate from past economic growth and energy usage trends.
The ratio of energy returned on energy invested EROEI for fossil energy production has tended to fall as high-quality deposits of oil, coal, and natural gas are depleted, and as society relies more on unconventional oil and gas that require more energy for extraction, and on coal that is more deeply buried or that is of lower energy content.
Further, renewable energy sources, especially if paired with needed energy storage technologies, tend to have a lower some say much lower EROEI than fossil fuels offered during the glory days of world economic growth after World War II.
And renewables require energy up front for their manufacture, producing a net energy benefit only later on.
The quantities and qualities of energy available to any society have impacts that ripple through its economy, and hence every aspect of daily life. Abundant, easily transported and stored energy from fossil fuels made industrial expansion possible during the twentieth century, and especially after World War II.
This period of turbo-charged economic growth had repercussions in fields as diverse as manufacturing, farming, transportation, and even music via the electrification of live performance as well as the flourishing of the recording industry.
Further, as archaeologist Joseph Tainter has pointed outsocieties often use complexity an increase in the variety of tools and institutions as a means of solving problems. But complexity carries energy costs, and the deployment of complexity as a problem-solving strategy is subject to diminishing returns.
All of which suggests that if and when energy sources decline, industrial societies will face systemic challenges on a scale far beyond anything seen in recent decades. Specifically, I address the question of whether and which societies will have a high probability of turning toward authoritarian forms of government in response to energy challenges.
However, as we will see, energy decline is far from being the only possible driver of authoritarian political change. The Anthropology and History of Authoritarianism and Democracy It is often asserted that democracy began in ancient Greece.
While there is some truth to the statement, it is also misleading. Many pre-agricultural societies tended to be highly egalitarian, with most or all members contributing to significant decisions.
Animal-herding societies were an exception: Herders, whose social relations reflect the harshness of their environment, typically live in places unfit for farming, such as deserts. A good example of democracy completely independent of the Greek tradition is the Iroquois confederacy of the American northeastwhose inclusive decision-making system incorporated checks and balances; it served as an inspiration for colonists seeking to design a democratic government for themselves as they threw off the yoke of British rule.
Early agricultural societies were often rigidly authoritarian.
Marvin Harris explained this development in infrastructural terms:The yield spread between long-term and short-term Treasury securities is known to be a good predictor of economic activity, particularly of looming recessions.
A rising populist backlash against globalization took many forms in , posing a threat to large multinational corporations, financial institutions and exporting businesses in advanced economies.
GERMAN CRIMINAL CODE. Full citation: Criminal Code in the version promulgated on 13 November , Federal Law Gazette [Bundesgesetzblatt] I p.
, last amended by Article 1 of the Law of 24 September , Federal Law Gazette I p. and with the text of Article 6(18) of the Law of 10 October , Federal Law Gazette I p The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive /95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February by the European Union..
The RoHS 1 directive took effect on 1 July , and is required to be enforced and became a law in each member state.
cases like these. The first mitigating factor involved in the National Semiconductor case is the uncertainty, on the part of the employees, on the duties that they were assigned. It is plausible that during the testing procedure, an employee couldnt distinguish which parts they were to test under government standards and commercial standards.4/4(1).
The first mitigating factor involved in the National Semiconductor case is the uncertainty, on the part of the employees, on the duties that they were assigned. It is plausible that during the testing procedure, an employee couldn’t distinguish which parts they were to test under government standards and commercial standards.