Generally speaking, a commitment to democracy as an object of study and deliberation is what unites democratic theorists across a variety of academic disciplines and methodological orientations. When this commitment takes the form of a discussion of the moral foundations and desirability of democracy, normative theory results.
Classical liberals believe that individuals are "egoistic, coldly calculating, essentially inert and atomistic"  and that society is no more than the sum of its individual members. These beliefs were complemented by a belief that laborers could be best motivated by financial incentive.
This belief led to the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Actwhich limited the provision of social assistance, based on the idea that markets are the mechanism that most efficiently leads to wealth.
Adopting Thomas Robert Malthus Neoclassical liberal democratic theory and the population theory, they saw poor urban conditions as inevitable, they believed population growth would outstrip food production and they regarded that consequence desirable because starvation would help limit population growth.
They opposed any income or wealth redistribution, which they believed would be dissipated by the lowest orders. They were critical of what would come to be the idea of the welfare state as interfering in a free market. In a free market, both labor and capital would receive the greatest possible reward while production would be organized efficiently to meet consumer demand.
A government to protect individual rights and to provide services that cannot be provided in a free market. A common national defense to provide protection against foreign invaders. Building and maintaining public institutions.
Public works that included a stable currency, standard weights and measures and building and upkeep of roads, canals, harbors, railways, communications and postal services. For society to guarantee positive rights, it requires taxation over and above the minimum needed to enforce negative rights.
In its most extreme form, neo-classical liberalism advocated Social Darwinism. Hayek saw the British philosophers Bernard MandevilleDavid HumeAdam SmithAdam FergusonJosiah Tucker and William Paley as representative of a tradition that articulated beliefs in empiricismthe common law and in traditions and institutions which had spontaneously evolved but were imperfectly understood.
This tradition believed in rationalism and sometimes showed hostility to tradition and religion. Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition: Guido De Ruggiero also identified differences between "Montesquieu and Rousseau, the English and the democratic types of liberalism"  and argued that there was a "profound contrast between the two Liberal systems".
This liberalism had "insensibly adapted ancient institutions to modern needs" and "instinctively recoiled from all abstract proclamations of principles and rights".
Lieber asserted that "independence in the highest degree, compatible with safety and broad national guarantees of liberty, is the great aim of Anglican liberty, and self-reliance is the chief source from which it draws its strength". Whiggery had become a dominant ideology following the Glorious Revolution of and was associated with the defence of the British Parliament, upholding the rule of law and defending landed property.
The origins of rights were seen as being in an ancient constitutionwhich had existed from time immemorial.
These rights, which some Whigs considered to include freedom of the press and freedom of speech, were justified by custom rather than by natural rights. They believed that the power of the executive had to be constrained.
While they supported limited suffrage, they saw voting as a privilege rather than as a right. However, there was no consistency in Whig ideology and diverse writers including John LockeDavid HumeAdam Smith and Edmund Burke were all influential among Whigs, although none of them was universally accepted.
Richard Price and Joseph Priestley adapted the language of Locke to the ideology of radicalism.Neoclassical liberals often defend the same policies as classical liberals but "they have an explicit, foundational concern for social justice" (p.
11, emphasis in original).3 The essence of the position is this. A neoclassical realist theory of the democratic peace would hold that the theorisation of the democratic peace cannot proceed without due acknowledgement of the complex interaction between both the systemic forces proffered by neorealist theory and the unit-level variables central to liberal theories of the democratic peace.
The neoclassical theory is the most widely used economic theory today; you cannot have a meaningful discussion about economics without using the words supply, demand, profit, and satisfaction. The theory was built on foundations laid by classical theorists Adam Smith () and David Ricardo ().
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.: 7 Those ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
the English and the democratic types of liberalism" t the center of classical liberal theory [in Europe] was the idea of laissez-faire. Madison incorporates Lockean philosophies of natural law and role of government with a democratized systematic approach, thus establishing a Constitution largely based upon the ideology of the Neoclassical Liberal Democratic Theory.