Bibliography Purpose of Guide This guide is intended to help students organize and write a quality research paper for classes taught in the social and behavioral sciences. Also included are recommendations concerning how to successfully manage and complete specific course assignments.
In addition, all tables and figures must have numbers, titles and legends. Figure and Table Legends Legends to the figures and tables explain the elements that appear in the illustration. Conclusions about the data are NOT included in the legends. As you write your first draft, state in a short simple sentence, what the point of the figure or table is.
In later drafts, make sure each element of the figure or table is explained. Your figure legends should be written in the present tense since you are explaining elements that still exist at the time that you are writing the paper.
Results To write the results section, use the figures and tables as a guide. Start by outlining, in point form, what you found, going slowly through each part of the figures.
Then take the points and group them into paragraphs, and finally order the points within each paragraph. Present the data as fully as possible, including stuff that at the moment does not quite make sense. Verbs in the results section are usually in the past tense. There are, however, exceptions to this general rule.
It is acceptable to say, "Table 3 shows the sizes of the DNA fragments in our preparation. Include enough detail so that someone can repeat the experiment. It is important that the reader be able to interpret the results knowing the context in which they were obtained.
The Materials and Methods section should be written in the past tense, since your experiments are completed at the time you are writing your paper.
Discussion This is the section of the paper for you to show off your understanding of the data. You should summarize what you found. Explain how this relates to what others have found. Introduction Introduce what your question is.
Explain why someone should find this interesting. Summarize what is currently known about the question. Introduce a little of what you found and how you found it. You should explain any ideas or techniques that are necessary for someone to understand your results section. Abstract The abstract is a very short summary usually around words of what the question is, what you found, and why it may be important.
The importance of abstracts is increasing as more scientists are using computers to keep up with the literature. Consequently, a well written abstract is extraordinarily important. Title The title should be short about 10 wordsinteresting, and it should describe what you found. References Include only those references that pertain to the question at hand.
Journals vary considerably in their preferred format for the reference list.ADVANCED WRITING. IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A Corpus-Based Study of Processes and Products Horvath Jozsef Lingua Franca Csoport ADVANCED WRITING IN ENGLISH.
Guidelines for writing formal lab reports In high school and university, I spent an extensive amount of time writing lab reports, and as a teacher and tutor, I have edited and marked hundreds of student lab reports.
Preparing a Research Report Guidelines on how to prepare a professional-style research report are not always routinely available. For this reason, the following information on report writing and format is provided to be helpful to undergraduate researchers and to faculty advisors.
Much of what follows is similar to what authors . Communication, in General. The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.
— George Bernard Shaw.
If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless. Guidelines for Writing a Formal Lab Report Formal laboratory reports are examples of technical writing, which are written in the third person impersonal (e.g., “A few drops of phenolphthalein were added to the solution”), NOT in the first person.
A laboratory notebook is an important tool that goes well beyond research management and can have important implications for issues ranging from intellectual property management to the prevention of fraud. This chapter discusses the key elements of a laboratory notebook, types of notebooks, what should be included in the notebook, ownership issues, archiving, and security.