Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Lauranada MessinaSannazzaro and Poliziano arriving in the city. A revolution led by the local fisherman Masaniello saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic inthough this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was reasserted. Horatio Nelsonan ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in to warn against the French republicans. Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermowhere he was protected by a British fleet.
Essay by Valerie Spanswick. East end of Salisbury Cathedral. Forget the association of the word "Gothic" to dark, haunted houses, Wuthering Heights, or ghostly pale people wearing black nail polish and ripped fishnets.
The original Gothic style was actually developed to bring sunshine into people's lives, and especially into their churches. To get past the accrued definitions of the centuries, it's best to go back to the very start of the word Gothic, and to the style that bears the name. The Goths were a so-called barbaric tribe who held power in various regions of Europe, between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire so, from roughly the fifth to the eighth century.
They were not renowned for great achievements in architecture. Early Gothic arches, Southwell Minster. The style represented giant steps away from the previous, relatively basic building systems that had prevailed.
The Gothic grew out of the Romanesque architectural style, when both prosperity and relative peace allowed for several centuries of cultural development and great building schemes. From roughly toseveral significant cathedrals and churches were built, particularly in Britain and France, offering architects and masons a chance to work out ever more complex and daring designs.
The most fundamental element of the Gothic style of architecture is the pointed arch, which was likely borrowed from Islamic architecture that would have been seen in Spain at this time.
The pointed arch relieved some of the thrust, and therefore, the stress on other structural elements. It then became possible to reduce the size of the columns or piers that supported the arch.
Nave of Salisbury Cathedral. So, rather than having massive, drum-like columns as in the Romanesque churches, the new columns could be more slender. In fact, the column basically continued all the way to the roof, and became part of the vault.
In the vault, the pointed arch could be seen in three dimensions where the ribbed vaulting met in the center of the ceiling of each bay.
This ribbed vaulting is another distinguishing feature of Gothic architecture. However, it should be noted that prototypes for the pointed arches and ribbed vaulting were seen first in late-Romanesque buildings.
Open tracery at Southwell Minster. The new understanding of architecture and design led to more fantastic examples of vaulting and ornamentation, and the Early Gothic or Lancet style from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries developed into the Decorated or Rayonnant Gothic roughly fourteenth century.
The ornate stonework that held the windows—called tracery—became more florid, and other stonework even more exuberant. The ribbed vaulting became more complicated and was crossed with lierne ribs into complex webs, or the addition of cross ribs, called tierceron.
As the decoration developed further, the Perpendicular or International Gothic took over fifteenth century. Fan vaulting decorated half-conoid shapes extending from the tops of the columnar ribs.
Lierne vaults Gloucester Cathedral. The slender columns and lighter systems of thrust allowed for larger windows and more light. The windows, tracery, carvings, and ribs make up a dizzying display of decoration that one encounters in a Gothic church.
In late Gothic buildings, almost every surface is decorated.
Although such a building as a whole is ordered and coherent, the profusion of shapes and patterns can make a sense of order difficult to discern at first glance. Gothic windows at Gloucester Cathedral. After the great flowering of Gothic style, tastes again shifted back to the neat, straight lines and rational geometry of the Classical era.
It was in the Renaissance that the name Gothic came to be applied to this medieval style that seemed vulgar to Renaissance sensibilities. It is still the term we use today, though hopefully without the implied insult, which negates the amazing leaps of imagination and engineering that were required to build such edifices.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum ("French/Frankish work"), The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, and . Comparing Roman and Greek Art to Renaissance and Medieval Art Greek Art Greek Sculptures captured the "ideal image" of people, the sculptures had a muscular, athletic build.
most sculptures were full . Flashcard Machine - create, study and share online flash cards My Flashcards; Flashcard Library; About; Contribute; Search; Help; Sign In; Create Account. The Loeb Classical Library is the only series of books which, through original text and English translation, gives access to our entire Greek and Latin heritage.
Convenient and well-printed pocket volumes feature up-to-date text and accurate and literate English translations on each facing page. The editors provide substantive introductions as well as essential critical and explanatory notes.
Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. The earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium vetconnexx.coms from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope (Παρθενόπη, meaning "Pure Eyes", a Siren in Greek mythology) on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC.