Researcherstraditional academic research in the social sciences and increasingly public health, using the public use data files --MA theses, PhD dissertations, journal articles, book chapters Translators Natl Campaign to Prevent Teen Unwanted Pregnancy, Child Trends, Guttmacher Institute --short reports for policy makers, program field staff, funders, etc. But Will It Last?
March 29, DOI: Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.
In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion.
Conclusions Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by personal and background characteristics. Income's strong influence on contraceptive failure suggests that access barriers and the general disadvantage associated with poverty seriously impede effective contraceptive practice in the United States.
Family Planning Perspectives,31 2: Some contraceptives are inherently more effective than others at preventing pregnancy. Pregnancy rates among contraceptive users also differ by women's socioeconomic characteristics, however, most likely because of variations in how consistently and correctly methods are used.
Thus, there is a pressing need to know which contraceptive users are more likely to have difficulty avoiding unintended pregnancies and whether some groups have heightened dificulty with any specific methods.
Two types of information contribute to our understanding of contraceptive method effectiveness and its variation across subgroups of women. The advantage of these data is that they are collected in a prospective manner, with relatively close monitoring of users. However, participants in clinical trials are usually self-selected, and they often have received more intense patient education and clinical attention than the typical user experiences once a method is widely available.
Survey data collected from general populations of users have the opposite advantages and disadvantages: Respondents are more likely to represent typical users under conditions of actual method availability, but surveys usually collect retrospective data, which may be affected by recall and reporting error.
Moreover, there are few if any checks on the accuracy of the information reported. The divergence between the method-specific failure rates observed in national surveys and the failure rates for near-perfect use during clinical trials reflects the influence of a number of unmeasured individual-level factors on typical use-effectiveness.
To the extent that women's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics reflect differences in their attitudes and behaviors with respect to contraceptive use, these can be used as proxies for behavioral and attitudinal differences among individual users. It is important to recognize, however, that socioeconomic characteristics are markers for differences in patterns of method use, rather than risk factors in and of themselves.
Contraceptive effectiveness rates derived from national surveys are usually underestimated, because a large proportion of unintended pregnancies resulting from contraceptive failure end in induced abortion and because abortion is typically underreported in surveys of women in the general population.
This is clearly a problem with failure rates estimated solely from the National Survey of Family Growth NSFGthe data set most commonly used for analyses of contraceptive use.
These failure rates represent the actual experience of method users rather than the failure levels that might be achieved if all methods were always used correctly and consistently. In addition to differentials by method used and by duration of use, we consider the differences according to women's characteristics, such as age, union status, race or ethnicity, poverty status and religion, that have been found to be associated with use-effectiveness.
Ideally, contraceptive failure would be defined as a conception occurring in an act of intercourse when a contraceptive method was in use. However, it is often difficult to link conception to any specific act of intercourse, and the correctness of use—and even actual use—of a method can vary within a short time period.The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth-control pill or simply "the pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen and a progestin (progestogen).
When taken by mouth every day, these pills inhibit female fertility.B.C. type: Hormonal. The development of hormonal contraception cannot be considered as responsible for either starting or the size of the fertility decline. A more subtle chain of causality must be considered, but there is no agreement on a general theory of fertility changes.
Emergency Contraception Demonstration Project. As early as , researchers and clinicians recognized that a high dose of combination estrogen/progestin oral contraceptives could prevent pregnancy if taken shortly after an unprotected act of . A study published in the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, “The Effects of Contraception on Female Poverty,” uses Census data to examine the relationship between legal access to contraception and female poverty rates.
Among the multiple MPTs under development, intravaginal rings (IVRs) Women also had to report willingness to switch from their existing birth control method to using NuvaRing for six months, to undergo periodic pelvic examinations and testing for pregnancy, HIV and other STIs, and to provide family clinic documentation of DMAP or OCP use in.
Survival analysis is a generic statistical term for the analysis of data which is presented in the form of durations of time between a specified initiating event e.g.
birth, and a final closing event e.g. death.