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Recursive acronymsin which the abbreviation refers to itself GNU: Wine is not an emulator originally, Windows emulator These may go through multiple layers before the self-reference is found: Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Acronymy, like retronymyis a linguistic process that has existed throughout history but for which there was little to no namingconscious attention, or systematic analysis until relatively recent times.
Like retronymy, it became much more common in the 20th century than it had formerly been. Ancient examples of acronymy regardless of whether there was metalanguage at the time to describe it include the following: Acronyms were used in Rome before the Christian era.
Inscriptions dating from antiquity, both on stone and on coins, use a lot of abbreviations and acronyms to save room and work. For example, Roman first namesof which there was only a small set, were almost always abbreviated.
Common terms were abbreviated too, such as writing just "F" for filius, meaning "son of", a very common part of memorial inscriptions mentioning people.
Grammatical markers were abbreviated or left out entirely if they could be inferred from the rest of the text. So-called nomina sacra were used in many Greek biblical manuscripts.
This was just one of many kinds of conventional scribal abbreviation, used to reduce the time-consuming workload of the scribe and save on valuable writing materials. The same convention is still commonly used in the inscriptions on religious icons and the stamps used to mark the eucharistic bread in Eastern Churches.
This interpretation dates from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and is preserved in the catacombs of Rome. The Hebrew language has a long history of formation of acronyms pronounced as words, stretching back many centuries.
The Hebrew Bible "Old Testament" is known as " Tanakh ", an acronym composed from the Hebrew initial letters of its three major sections: Torah five books of MosesNevi'im prophetsand K'tuvim writings. Many rabbinical figures from the Middle Ages onward are referred to in rabbinical literature by their pronounced acronyms, such as Rambam and Rashi from the initial letters of their full Hebrew names: During the mid- to lateth century, an acronym-disseminating trend spread through the American and European business communities: Some well-known commercial examples dating from the s through s include Nabisco National Biscuit Company Esso from S.
Another driver for the adoption of acronyms was modern warfare with its many highly technical terms. While there is no recorded use of military acronyms in documents dating from the American Civil War acronyms such as ANV for "Army of Northern Virginia" post-date the war itselfthey had become somewhat common in World War I and were very much a part even of the vernacular language of the soldiers during World War II who themselves were referred to as G.
The widespread, frequent use of acronyms across the whole range of registers is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon in most languages, becoming increasingly evident since the midth century. As literacy rates rose, and as advances in science and technology brought with them a constant stream of new and sometimes more complex terms and concepts, the practice of abbreviating terms became increasingly convenient.
The Oxford English Dictionary OED records the first printed use of the word initialism as occurring inbut it did not come into general use untilwell after acronym had become common. Bythe term acronym had been used in English to recognize abbreviations and contractions of phrases that were pronounced as words.
Linguist David Wilton in Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends claims that "forming words from acronyms is a distinctly twentieth- and now twenty-first- century phenomenon.
There is only one known pre-twentieth-century [English] word with an acronymic origin and it was in vogue for only a short time in The word is colinderies or colinda, an acronym for the Colonial and Indian Exposition held in London in that year.
Early examples in English[ edit ] The use of Latin and Neo-Latin terms in vernaculars has been pan-European and predates modern English. Some examples of acronyms in this class are: The armed forces and government agencies frequently employ acronyms; some well-known examples from the United States are among the " alphabet agencies " also jokingly referred to as " alphabet soup " created by Franklin D.
Business and industry also are prolific coiners of acronyms. The rapid advance of science and technology in recent centuries seems to be an underlying force driving the usage, as new inventions and concepts with multiword names create a demand for shorter, more manageable names. Others point out that language change has happened for thousands of years, and argue that it should be embraced as inevitable, or as innovation that adapts the language to changing circumstances.Punctuation Hyphenation Italics andBold Fonts andSymbols Abbreviationsand Acronyms Headings,Paragraph Styles, and Lists Numbers andStatistics Tables Figures Use ofWords Grammar Flow ofIdeas Style for CitedPublications References.
In this article I provide guidelines for writing in scientific style, starting with the detail of punctuation and working up through to the whole document. Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. Planning and Producing Documents. Characteristics of Effective Technical Communication.
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Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their specific areas of expertise. Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (usually), a.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted (a) The provisions of this section and §§ of this title shall be implemented by school districts.
In formal writing for a broad audience, the expansion is typically given at the first occurrence of the acronym within a given text, for the benefit of those readers who do not know what it stands for.